Edinburgh' (pronounced [ˈɛdɪnb(ə)rə]; Dùn Èideann ([tuːn ˈeːtʃən]) in Scottish Gaelic) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city and the 7th largest in the United Kingdom.
It is situated on the east coast of Scotland's central lowlands on the south shore of the Firth of Forth on the North sea and forms the City of Edinburgh council area. (The city council area includes urban Edinburgh and more rural areas.) It has been the capital of Scotland since 1437 and is the seat of the country's devolved government. The city was one of the major centres of the enlightenment (see Scottish Enlightenment), led by the University of Edinburgh. The Old Town and New Town districts of Edinburgh were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. In the census of 2001, Edinburgh had a total resident population of approximately 440,000.
Edinburgh is well-known for the annual Edinburgh Festival, actually a collection of independent festivals held annually over about four weeks from early August, when the population of the city doubles. The most famous of these events are the Edinburgh Fringe (the largest performing arts festival in the world), the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, and the Edinburgh International Film Festival. Another famous event is the Hogmanay street party.
The city is one of Europe's major tourist destinations, attracting roughly 13 million visitors a year, and is the second most visited tourist destination in the United Kingdom, after London.
See the whole article here